Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2016, 4(1), 8-14
DOI: 10.12691/JGG-4-1-2
Original Research

Empirical Modelling of Refraction Error in Trigonometric Heighting Using Meteorological Parameters

D. Gaifillia1, V. Pagounis1, M. Tsakiri2, and V. Zacharis2

1Department of Surveying Engineering, Technological Educational Institute, Athens, Greece

2School of Rural & Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Pub. Date: January 25, 2016

Cite this paper

D. Gaifillia, V. Pagounis, M. Tsakiri and V. Zacharis. Empirical Modelling of Refraction Error in Trigonometric Heighting Using Meteorological Parameters. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2016; 4(1):8-14. doi: 10.12691/JGG-4-1-2


Refraction is a complex problem in terrestrial optical measurement and can be regarded as a major source of systematic error in the precise determination of height differences using trigonometric heighting. This paper deals with the development of an empirical model to estimate vertical refraction corrections from meteorological measurements gathered by freely available meteorological sensors. The proposed methodology can produce more realistic local estimates for the refraction coefficient than the typically used single generic value. Along with presentation of the proposed method, this study also presents experimental data to illustrate that the produced results are comparable to those obtained by surveying observations.


refraction coefficient, trigonometric heighting, meteorological parameters, empirical model


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